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Cybernetics is a trans disciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems their structures, constraints, and possibilities Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop originally referred to as a “circular causal” relationship that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in the system in some manner that triggers a system change. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems.
The essential goal of the broad field of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems that have goals and that participate in circular, causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with desired goal, and again to action. Its focus is how anything digital, mechanical or biological processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization.
Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, convergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, and connectivity. In cybernetics these concepts otherwise already objects of study in other disciplines such as biology and engineering are abstracted from the context of the specific organism or device.
The word cybernetics Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, anthropology, often attributed to the Macy Conferences. During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics about observed systems from second-order cybernetics about observing systems More recently there is talk about a third-order cybernetics doing in ways that embraces first and second-order.