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The need of secure big data storage service is more desirable than ever to date. The basic requirement of the service is to guarantee the confidentiality of the data. However, the anonymity of the service clients, one of the most essential aspects of privacy, should be considered simultaneously. Moreover, the service also should provide practical and fine-grained encrypted data sharing such that a data owner is allowed to share a ciphertext of data among others under some specified conditions. This paper, for the first time, proposes a privacy-preserving ciphertext multi-sharing mechanism to achieve the above properties. It combines the merits of proxy re-encryption with anonymous technique in which a ciphertext can be securely and conditionally shared multiple times without leaking both the knowledge of underlying message and the identity information of ciphertext senders/recipients. Furthermore, this paper shows that the new primitive is secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks in the standard model. IEEE Project center in Chennai
The need of secure big data storage service is more desirable than ever to date. The basic requirement of the service is to guarantee the confidentiality of the data. However, the anonymity of the service clients, one of the most essential aspects of privacy, should be considered simultaneously. Moreover, the service also should provide practical and fine-grained encrypted data sharing such that a data owner is allowed to share a ciphertext of data among others under some specified conditions. This paper, for the first time, proposes a privacy-preserving ciphertext multi-sharing mechanism to achieve the above properties. It combines the merits of proxy re-encryption with anonymous technique in which a ciphertext can be securely and conditionally shared multiple times without leaking both the knowledge of underlying message and the identity information of ciphertext senders/recipients.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are resource constrained. Energy is one of the most important resources in such networks. Therefore, optimal use of energy is necessary. In this paper, we present a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for WSNs. The protocol is reliable in terms of data delivery at the base station (BS). We consider mobility in sensor nodes and in the BS. The proposed protocol is hierarchical and cluster based. Each cluster consists of one cluster head (CH) node, two deputy CH nodes, and some ordinary sensor nodes. The reclustering time and energy requirements have been minimized by introducing the concept of CH panel. At the initial stage of the protocol, the BS selects a set of probable CH nodes and forms the CH panel. Considering the reliability aspect of the protocol, it puts best effort to ensure a specified throughput level at the BS. Depending on the topology of the network, the data transmission from the CH node to the BS is carried out either directly or in multihop fashion. Moreover, alternate paths are used for data transmission between a CH node and the BS.
Cloud computing is a revolutionary computing paradigm, which enables flexible, on-demand, and low-cost usage of computing resources, but the data is outsourced to some cloud servers, and various privacy concerns emerge from it. Various schemes based on the attribute-based encryption have been proposed to secure the cloud storage. However, most work focuses on the data contents privacy and the access control, while less attention is paid to the privilege control and the identity privacy. In this paper, we present a semianonymous privilege control scheme AnonyControl to address not only the data privacy, but also the user identity privacy in existing access control schemes. AnonyControl decentralizes the central authority to limit the identity leakage and thus achieves semianonymity. Besides, it also generalizes the file access control to the privilege control, by which privileges of all operations on the cloud data can be managed in a fine-grained manner. Subsequently, we present the AnonyControl-F, which fully prevents the identity leakage and achieve the full anonymity.
Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been deployed for a wide variety of applications, including military sensing and tracking, patient status monitoring, traffic flow monitoring, where sensory devices often move between different locations. Securing data and communications requires suitable encryption key protocols. In this paper, we propose a certificateless-effective key management (CL-EKM) protocol for secure communication in dynamic WSNs characterized by node mobility. The CL-EKM supports efficient key updates when a node leaves or joins a cluster and ensures forward and backward key secrecy. The protocol also supports efficient key revocation for compromised nodes and minimizes the impact of a node compromise on the security of other communication links. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol is effective in defending against various attacks. We implement CL-EKM in Contiki OS and simulate it using Cooja simulator to assess its time, energy, communication, and memory performance.
Induced by incorporating the powerful data storage and data processing abilities of cloud computing (CC) as well as ubiquitous data gathering capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), CC-WSNintegration received a lot of attention from both academia and industry. However, authentication as well as trust and reputation calculation and management of cloud service providers (CSPs) and sensornetwork providers (SNPs) are two very critical and barely explored issues for this new paradigm. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a novel authenticated trust and reputation calculation and management(ATRCM) system for CC-WSN integration. Considering the authenticity of CSP and SNP, the attribute requirement of cloud service user (CSU) and CSP, the cost, trust, and reputation of the service of CSP and SNP, the proposed ATRCM system achieves the following three functions: 1) authenticating CSP and SNP to avoid malicious impersonation attacks; 2) calculating and managing trust and reputationregarding the service of CSP and SNP; and 3) helping CSU choose desirable CSP and assisting CSP in selecting appropriate SNP. Detailed analysis and design as well as further functionality evaluation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of ATRCM, followed with system security analysis.
Cloud storage auditing is viewed as an important service to verify the integrity of the data in publiccloud. Current auditing protocols are all based on the assumption that the client’s secret key for auditingis absolutely secure. However, such assumption may not always be held, due to the possibly weak sense of security and/or low security settings at the client. If such a secret key for auditing is exposed, most of the current auditing protocols would inevitably become unable to work. In this paper, we focus on this new aspect of cloud storage auditing. We investigate how to reduce the damage of the client’skey exposure in cloud storage auditing, and give the first practical solution for this new problem setting. We formalize the definition and the security model of auditing protocol with key–exposure resilience and propose such a protocol. In our design, we employ the binary tree structure and the preorder traversal technique to update the secret keys for the client. We also develop a novel authenticator construction to support the forward security and the property of blockless verifiability. The security proof and the performance analysis show that our proposed protocol is secure and efficient.
To protect outsourced data in cloud storage against corruptions, adding fault tolerance to cloud storagetogether with data integrity checking and failure reparation becomes critical. Recently, regeneratingcodes have gained popularity due to their lower repair bandwidth while providing fault tolerance. Existing remote checking methods for regenerating-coded data only provide private auditing, requiring data owners to always stay online and handle auditing, as well as repairing, which is sometimes impractical. In this paper, we propose a public auditing scheme for the regenerating–code–based cloudstorage. To solve the regeneration problem of failed authenticators in the absence of data owners, we introduce a proxy, which is privileged to regenerate the authenticators, into the traditional public auditingsystem model. Moreover, we design a novel public verifiable authenticator, which is generated by a couple of keys and can be regenerated using partial keys. Thus, our scheme can completely release data owners from online burden. In addition, we randomize the encode coefficients with a pseudorandom function to preserve data privacy. Extensive security analysis shows that our scheme is provable secure under random oracle model and experimental evaluation indicates that our scheme is highly efficient and can be feasibly integrated into the regenerating–code–based cloud storage.
Increasingly more and more organizations are opting for outsourcing data to remote cloud service providers (CSPs). Customers can rent the CSPs storage infrastructure to store and retrieve almost unlimited amount of data by paying fees metered in gigabyte/month. For an increased level of scalability, availability, and durability, some customers may want their data to be replicated on multiple servers across multiple data centers. The more copies the CSP is asked to store, the more fees the customers are charged. Therefore, customers need to have a strong guarantee that the CSP is storing all data copies that are agreed upon in the service contract, and all these copies are consistent with the most recent modifications issued by the customers. In this paper, we propose a map-based provablemulticopy dynamic data possession (MB-PMDDP) scheme that has the following features: 1) it provides an evidence to the customers that the CSP is not cheating by storing fewer copies; 2) it supports outsourcing of dynamic data, i.e., it supports block-level operations, such as block modification, insertion, deletion, and append; and 3) it allows authorized users to seamlessly access the file copies stored by the CSP. We give a comparative analysis of the proposed MB-PMDDP scheme with a reference model obtained by extending existing provable possession of dynamic single-copy schemes. The theoretical analysis is validated through experimental results on a commercial cloudplatform. In addition, we show the security against colluding servers, and discuss how to identify corrupted copies by slightly modifying the proposed scheme.
We provide a generic framework that, with the help of a preprocessing phase that is independent of the inputs of the users, allows an arbitrary number of users to securely outsource a computation to twonon–colluding external servers. Our approach is shown to be provably secure in an adversarial model where one of the servers may arbitrarily deviate from the protocol specification, as well as employ an arbitrary number of dummy users. We use these techniques to implement a secure recommender system based on collaborative filtering that becomes more secure, and significantly more efficient than previously known implementations of such systems, when the preprocessing efforts are excluded. We suggest different alternatives for preprocessing, and discuss their merits and demerits.
Side-channel analysis (SCA) exploits the information leaked through unintentional outputs (e.g., power consumption) to reveal the secret key of cryptographic modules. The real threat of SCA lies in the ability to mount attacks over small parts of the key and to aggregate information over different encryptions. The threat of SCA can be thwarted by changing the secret key at every run. Indeed, many contributions in the domain of leakage resilient cryptography tried to achieve this goal. However, the proposed solutions were computationally intensive and were not designed to solve the problem of the current cryptographic schemes. In this paper, we propose a generic framework of lightweight keyupdating that can protect the current cryptographic standards and evaluate the minimum requirements for heuristic SCA-security. Then, we propose a complete solution to protect the implementation of any standard mode of Advanced Encryption Standard. Our solution maintains the same level of SCA-security (and sometimes better) as the state of the art, at a negligible area overhead while doubling the throughput of the best previous work.
It is long known attackers may use forged source IP address to conceal their real locations. To capture the spoofers, a number of IP traceback mechanisms have been proposed. However, due to the challenges of deployment, there has been not a widely adopted IP traceback solution, at least at the Internet level. As a result, the mist on the locations of spoofers has never been dissipated till now. This paper proposes passive IP traceback (PIT) that bypasses the deployment difficulties of IP tracebacktechniques. PIT investigates Internet Control Message Protocol error messages (named pathbackscatter) triggered by spoofing traffic, and tracks the spoofers based on public available information (e.g., topology). In this way, PIT can find the spoofers without any deployment requirement. This paper illustrates the causes, collection, and the statistical results on path backscatter, demonstrates the processes and effectiveness of PIT, and shows the captured locations of spoofers through applying PIT on the path backscatter data set. These results can help further reveal IP spoofing, which has been studied for long but never well understood. Though PIT cannot work in all the spoofing attacks, it may be the most useful mechanism to trace spoofers before an Internet-level traceback system has been deployed in real.
Denial-of-service (DoS) and distributed DoS (DDoS) are among the major threats to cyber-security, and client puzzle, which demands a client to perform computationally expensive operations before being granted services from a server, is a well-known countermeasure to them. However, an attacker can inflate its capability of DoS/DDoS attacks with fast puzzle-solving software and/or built-in graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware to significantly weaken the effectiveness of client puzzles. In this paper, we study how to prevent DoS/DDoS attackers from inflating their puzzle-solving capabilities. Tothis end, we introduce a new client puzzle referred to as software puzzle. Unlike the existing clientpuzzle schemes, which publish their puzzle algorithms in advance, a puzzle algorithm in the presentsoftware puzzle scheme is randomly generated only after a client request is received at the server side and the algorithm is generated such that: 1) an attacker is unable to prepare an implementation to solve the puzzle in advance and 2) the attacker needs considerable effort in translating a central processing unit puzzle software to its functionally equivalent GPU version such that the translation cannot be done in real time. Moreover, we show how to implement software puzzle in the generic server-browser model.